Ingredient Substitutions

A repost from the Witch’s Kitchen blog, which will soon go away.

Thickening soups, stews, and sauces:
1 tablespoon cornstarch = 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 tablespoon arrowroot = 2½ tablespoons all-purpose flour

Flour:
1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour = l cup sifted cake flour
1 cup plus 2 tablespoons sifted cake flour = l cup sifted all-purpose flour
1 cup sifted self-rising flour = l cup sifted all-purpose flour plus 1-1/4
teaspoons baking powder and a pinch of salt

Leavening in baked goods:
1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/3 teaspoon cream of tartar = 1 teaspoon double-acting baking powder
1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk or yogurt = 1 teaspoon double-acting baking powder in liquid mixtures only; reduce liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup

Dairy products:
l cup whole milk = 1/2 cup unsweetened evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
l cup whole milk = l cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter
l cup whole milk = l cup water plus 1/3 cup powdered milk
l cup whole milk = l cup soy milk or l cup buttermilk plus 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 cup whole milk plus 1/3 cup melted butter = l cup heavy cream (but not for making whipped cream)
l cup skim milk = 1 cup water plus 1/4 cup non-fat powdered milk
l cup skim milk = 1/2 cup evaporated skim milk plus 1/3 cup water
l cup sour milk = l cup buttermilk
l cup sour milk = 1 cup plain yogurt
l cup sour milk = l cup minus 1 tablespoon milk plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice or white vinegar after standing 5-10 minutes
l cup sour cream = l cup plain yogurt

Eggs:
2 egg yolks = l egg for thickening sauces and custards
4 extra-large eggs = 5 large eggs or 6 small eggs

Sweetening:
l cup sugar = l cup molasses (or honey) plus 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
l cup brown sugar = l cup white sugar plus 1-1/2 tablespoons molasses

Misc:
1 cup broth or stock = l stock cube dissolved in l cup boiling water
1 square (1oz) unsweetened chocolate = 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or vegetable shortening
1 square (1oz) semisweet chocolate = 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or vegetable shortening plus 2 tablespoons sugar
2-3-inch piece of vanilla bean = 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract